Tag Archives: United Nations

War and Peace in Statecraft

Under the current simulation rules–which have largely been in place for the past few years–about 30% of my “worlds” (classes) have avoided war altogether.  Of the 70% that have experienced armed conflict, about half of these worlds have had localized, regional conflicts, and about half have experienced general war involving (at least peripherally) most of the great powers in the international system.  While students can learn a lot from an entirely peaceful simulation experience, I have found that the most intense student involvement and the deepest learning about world politics occurs when students are grappling with the presence or the looming threat of armed conflict.

War broke out in my Statecraft world this week, as the countries of Candy Land and Dynamistan launched a joint invasion of the Constitutional Union of Patagonia (C.U.P.).  This attack cost all students the 5-point Global Peace Award.  The perceived injustice of this action, along with the threat that the two aggressors could become powerful enough to threaten the rest of the world’s chances of achieving their goals (and associated extra credit), has focused students’ minds and dramatically ratcheted up the intensity of the simulation.  In a tense but remarkably professional UN meeting, Candy Land’s Secretary of State tried to justify the invasion as a preventive war since C.U.P. had reportedly discussed the prospect of developing nuclear weapons–in a secret conversation that was leaked to Candy Land–and had completed research on atomic theory (information Candy Land had gleaned through its embassy in C.U.P.).  Candy Land claimed that the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, to which it was a signatory, gave it the right to take this action.  C.U.P.’s leader disputed this in a message sent out to the world on the day of the invasion.  I quote:

“Thirdly, the document that UN Representative Bess cites giving his nation the authority to unilaterally invade another nation does, in fact, do quite the opposite. The NNPT states, “Any Nation found to be in violation of these stipulations will be be subject to any of, but not limited to, the following consequences AS DETERMINED BY THE UNITED NATIONS” The phrase to be noted is that consequences to any offense must be determined by the United Nations. Even if these claims of a treaty violation were legitimate, at no point was the United Nations notified and given the chance to deliberate a proper course of action. Because there is no recognized reason for invasion, both Dynamistan and Candy-Land should be found in violation of SIGNAT and labelled as aggressors and rogue states.”

An articulate UN ambassador from another country also accused the aggressors of violating international norms.  C.U.P. appeared to have won the argument in the UN and when I left at 3:45 (the end of class) about 20 students were huddled in a back hallway deciding how to deal with Candy Land and Dynamistan.  If past semesters are any indication, these conversations will continue all week (Turn 5 ends at noon on Saturday) in dorm rooms, the library, the dining hall, and coffee houses across campus.  Students will be weighing their options and their tools–diplomatic, economic, military, and political–for ending this crisis in a satisfactory way and maximizing their extra credit points (I make all of the simulation awards extra credit; alternative grading options are available).  Individual countries will have to decide how committed they are to defending C.U.P., how serious a threat the aggressors pose to other countries, and whether balancing or bandwagoning is a better approach.  Already some students (particularly domestic affairs advisers, whose job it is to focus on building their domestic quality of life ratings) are grappling with the “guns vs. butter” tradeoff: the diversion of scarce resources to build armies at this juncture will certainly detract from countries’ ability to improve their health, welfare, environmental, and other domestic conditions and achieve Quality of Life (QOL) extra credit.  So there are some powerful economic pressures to reach a quick settlement to this conflict.

Students seem to have overlooked the news message released on Saturday warning that scientists now believe global flooding is imminent, as the Ice Mountain has begun shedding ice at an alarming rate.   Their priorities lie elsewhere, but this will soon change and they will recognize that all countries have some interests (like survival) in common.

Overall, I’m very satisfied with the course of events in my Statecraft world this semester.  Students are becoming increasingly “addicted” to the simulation and are grappling in a very raw, emotional way with how to use the tools at their disposal to make peace or manage a war in a way that doesn’t undermine their other goals.  Students will have a great foundation of vivid personal experiences that I’ll use as examples throughout the rest of the course as we discuss security, IPE, IO, human rights, and environmental issues.  (See the lecture outlines–available on the professor’s “dashboard”–for lots of ideas on how to link students’ Statecraft experiences with specific IR concepts).

Turn 2 Developments

It’s only Turn 2 and things are already getting very interesting in my world.  I lectured for about half an hour on Monday, then gave my students the rest of the class period (45 minutes) for their Turn 2 simulation session.  Turn 2 doesn’t actually end online until noon on Saturday, but these face-to-face sessions are invaluable for building intensity, relationships, and investment in one’s country and world.

Among this week’s developments:

* The UN is struggling with how to implement a collective security treaty to prevent anyone from taking Sapphire Island or attacking each other.  Any use of force will cost all students the 5-point Global Peace Award, but Sapphire Island’s wealth (1,000 of each resource per turn) acts as a magnet for imperialist powers.  I will lead my students through a discussion on the challenges of collective security in a few weeks when we get to the security part of the course; for now it’s best to let students experience these dilemmas without interfering.

* Countries harboring the Typhoon Pirates and Orion Liberation Front (OLF) are coming under pressure to shut down these groups’ bases as resource losses from these militant groups’ activities become increasingly severe each turn.  The global award for wiping out terrorism is an incentive for cooperation here.  Of course, the fact that these host countries receive lucrative tribute each turn from the Pirates and OLF gives them an incentive to drag their feet as long as they can.

* Stopping the melting of the Ice Mountain (and the threat of global flooding) doesn’t appear to be on countries’ radar screens yet, even though a Turn 2 news story about rising sea levels should have raised some eyebrows.  This is as expected.  As the news grows more dire each turn and countries begin to consider the need for action, the collective action problem will rear its ugly head.

This week we are covering foreign policy decision-making.  In lecture, I am providing real-world examples of key biases such as mirror imaging, attribution biases, and groupthink, but I’m going to avoid giving Statecraft examples yet because I want my students to fall into these “traps” and experience these biases themselves (and obvious examples from past Statecraft worlds will serve as warnings).  In fact, I’m considering putting off my discussion of groupthink (scheduled for tomorrow) for a month or so because students almost always experience groupthink in Statecraft–and learn a great deal from succumbing to this “decision pathology”–so I don’t want to prematurely awaken them to the dangers of group cohesion and collegiality (which are increasing rapidly as groups meet both inside and outside of class).

Student involvement so far has equaled or exceeded that of recent semesters.  All country groups I sat in on yesterday were engaged in intense discussions about strategy, goals, potential allies/adversaries, etc., and several entire country groups stayed after class yesterday.  Whenever I check the “chat” feature online there are numerous students signed in–and not always the same ones, which is a good sign.  More to come as events unfold…